# Causality, part 1 - Bernhard Schölkopf - MLSS 2020, Tübingen - YouTube

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Consider a dataset of temperature $$t$$ vs altitude $$a$$. We typically see that the larger the altitude, the lower the temperature. How do we know if this is a causal effect?
2. Hypothetical intervention: expect that $$t$$ changes, since we can think of a physical mechanism $$p(t|a)$$ that is independent of $$p(a)$$. We expect that $$p(t|a)$$ is invariant across different countries in similar climate zone.